The types and characteristics of traditional printing

Printing methods there are several methods, the operation is different, printed results are different. Traditional printing methods can be divided into: letterpress, lithographic, intaglio and porous printing four categories.
Toppan printing (Relief Printing)
printing surface is prominent, rather than the image part is sunken, known as letterpress, letterpress printing including moveable rubber version of the two.
typography (Letter Press)
letterpress printing is a woodcut by the early moveable type and lead the development of movable type, and extended to most of modern type layout, and this method of printing, because the plate printed directly onto the paper, belong to the direct printing.
used in letterpress printing, except for text type typography, but others such as special fonts or graphics, pictures and the like, using photomechanical methods, made of zinc (commonly known as the Board), and more recently nylon offset of development, improved network printing results.
letterpress printing plate is generally flat, but there are some cases, need to be flat printed copy curve electrotype, which are packed on the Web rotary printing machine, for a lot of printing, such as a newspaper.
in addition to the printed picture to text letterpress printing in some parts, you can also print smooth printing surface text patterns, you can cut printing surface (commonly known as the beer-like) and printed for torn paper pinhole line and automatically transferred to digital printing.
rubber printing (Flexgraphy)
similar to rubber printing and letterpress printing, different plates are a piece of soft plastic, like a stamp with rubber. Similar to the inks and intaglio printing, volatility is high and thin and used for printing paper and plastic bags.
plate-making method can be divided into three steps: first, the first surviving Edition of Teletext Business Edition. The second, similar to bakelite hard plastic heating on the above board, printing hard block printing die. Third, also on this die in another soft heated on the die, and made the first steps in the same offset as the original version.
various types of adhesive tapes such as cellophane (Cellephane), p, v, c gum, polymerized fat adhesive tape (Polyester), acetate fiber paper (Acetate), ink surface absorption and permeability properties of materials can be printed on top. Applies to printed plastic bags, hand, plastic packaging. But this method of printing fine points, lines are not offset and letterpress printing, so pictures to highlight the effect.
offset printing (Planography)
lithography principle
lithography was named by the early lithography and development of early lithographic printing plate using the application after the stones worn, later modified to metallic zinc or aluminum plates, but the principle is the same.
General printing part and non-printing part are no level of difference, which is plane of, using water oil not phase mixed principle makes printing lines part keep a layer rich oil of oil film, and non-printing lines part Shang of layout is can absorption appropriate of water, envisaged in layout Shang ink zhihou, printing lines part will exclusion water and absorption has ink, and non-printing lines part is absorption water and formed anti-ink role, using this species method printing of method, on called "offset printing".
early lithographic offset by growth, and because of its plate making and printing has its own unique personality, while at work is also very simple and low cost, so in modern continuous research and improvement by experts, and now printing most commonly used methods.
offset printing mode is determined by the early lithographic printing transfer printing evolved, and depicted on the decal paper and then landed on the Edition became anti-patterns, and then printed on paper are lines. Due to this species method in printing Shi by bear of pressure, makes was is plane version of offset (that printing lines part and non-printing lines part are is plane of), bear has pressure zhihou, makes accounted for in layout Shang of ink for of diffusion expansion, and produced painting line bad phenomenon, so later only improved called 〖 Ke type printing method 〗 (offset Printing) its printing way is will layout made are lines, printing Shi was turned printing in rubber tube Shang for anti-lines, again by anti-lines printing to paper Shang for are lines, This can improve the flexibility of printing pressure.
early lithographic offset press, then for offset Rotary type and two types: round circle, offset rotary machines most of use on special printing, proofing machines for proofing, printing such as paper machines are all modified round-circle. Offset rotary printing layout type that is flat and pressure some pressure-drum is a drum, this method of printing is similar to letterpress printing in offset rotary machines. Round circle is to print parcel referred to in the roller tube, a drum machine called a rubber tube wrapped with rubber, pressure parts with pressure-drum is a drum, which constructed in three basic drum machine called "offset printing".
offset printing advantages and disadvantages of
cyclophosphamide advantages: mask making is simple and low cost. Color accurate version, printed copy is easy. Print soft soft tones. You can print large quantity printing.
② disadvantages: due to influence of water gel printed, tone reproduction reduced brightness deficiencies. Layout ink thinner (only 70%, so an offset of lightbox poster must be through a double-sided printing can strengthen its color). Special limited printing applications.
poster, ① ② Jane price, three parts, manuals, a black newspaper, ⑤ packaging, ⑥ books, sadly, magazines, ⑧ calendar, Krispy Kreme is about color printing and large quantity of printed matter.
intaglio printing (Intaglio Printing)
gravure printing principle
where the image part with a part without the image height is very different from many, and relief on the contrary, namely, printing ink has obvious sags under the layout, without the image part is shiny smooth. First rolled the ink on the page when printing, the ink into the printed part of the depression, then the surface adhesion of inks to wipe clean (of course depression of printed ink will not be erased). Put paper using greater pressure after the depression of the printed ink printed on paper. Using this printing method is known as "intaglio".
gravure printing because printing pressure is heavy, so in addition to action than letterpress or offset printing and layout must also pay special attention to the pressures which, printed layout against lines, printing paper is grain.
gravure printing is divided into intaglio and rotogravure
① intaglio:
intaglio is the early metal decorative sculpture evolved, patterns for engraving copper decorations, only to be later used in the printing performance.
carved intaglio by with of copperplate printing paper, early is first to wet, main is increased total on ink of stick with sex, so its paper back needed bedding a Zhang thick of does cloth, and larger of pressure began can will sag of printing lines within by stick with of ink pulled now and printing in paper Shang, this species printing method, main of shortcomings is printing Hou needed drying, will produced not rules of telescopic, makes printing products produced length not align phenomenon. But copper plate printing has been improved for dry printing method, improved layout, and carved and SAG lines shallower. Make it easy for the viscosity of the ink out of the way. Copper plate printing print picture dark light and steel, are based on the thickness of the line and depth of icing lines thick and deep plates, hid the viscosity of the ink is thicker, so the printing ink is deep. Thin and shallow line hid the viscosity of printing ink is thinner, so the printing, the ink is lighter. Of this print and the modern design of Visual art as beautiful, but most used to represent a pattern or the text, such as a photo of a continuous-tone (Continuous-tone) are much more difficult to do.
II photography intaglio
photography intaglio and called shadow wrote version, which using photography of principle will copperplate corrosion, is a after heavy chrome acid potassium solution photographic processing had of rubber paper (Larbo Tissue) and intaglio dedicated of cable version (Screen) posted Taiwan exposure, then will this rubber paper and continuous version adjustable of Yang tablets Sun version, rubber paper by two times exposure zhihou, is can by warm water be developer, picture light Department of rubber paper its Yang tablets above of black silver more light, Its degree of light transmission and the hardening of paper has a relatively high water of developed film is thicker, picture dark adhesive tape, due to positive black silver mask expansion, its adhesive tape for the degree of light transmission and the hardening of the smaller, it developed a thin film of water. So this by Developer Hou and thickness varies of rubber paper posted in copper quality drum or plane drum, with had ferric chloride be corrosion, light Department rubber film more thick of place, its solution can penetration and erosion copperplate of depth will more shallow, so its stick with of ink film is more thin, is its printing out of ink color that more light, as dark Department rubber film more thin of place, its rubber thick can solution penetration and corrosion into copperplate will more deep, so its printing lines stick with of ink film will more thick, and its printing out of ink color will more deep.
the strengths and weaknesses of the intaglio printing
① advantages: ink is about 90% and expressive, rich in tone. Color rendering ability. Layout of strong resistance. Print quantity scale. Wide range of paper and paper material other than printing.
II inferior: plate costs, printing costs are expensive, mask making is complex, small numbers of copies is not appropriate.
gravure printing applications
intaglio printing, because of its beautiful lines, and difficult to counterfeit, are used in the printing of securities, such as banknotes, stock, gift certificates, stamps, as well as commercial credit voucher or stationery, and so on. Due to its high printing costs, generally printed, used very little. Gravure plate-making process is complex, and its cost is more expensive, it is not suitable for printing a small number of copies are generally used in large quantity of printed matter, such as color printed magazine and currently popular building materials and so on, are very appropriate. Intaglio printing because of high speed rotary press type, not only speed and printing ink film is far better than letterpress or lithography for thick.
porous printing (Stencil Printing)
porous printing principle
in addition to letterpress, lithographic, intaglio, the three outside the layout, a similar craft of porous printing, also accounted for a modern printing of unique one, because modern businesses affected, are highly prized in design circles. Porous printing because of their unique expressiveness and wide range of applications, is the design or the public in General, and concepts to understand one thing. Where the printed part is porous, and use printers in this way are called "porous printing."
as General with pin in waxed paper Shang lettering or with electronic corrosion version of mimeographs printing, this is more basic of hole version printing, and in design or industrial Shang application to of is screen printing (Screen Printing), silk printing early is using in handicrafts like, now has development for automation of printing has, in sedan aspects has using photography sedan method makes layout constitute; for its ink color strong, another has a special feel, most should be with for special effect printing pieces. And the solid surface such as boxes, circles, printed on the cans, and in addition to printing paper and can be printed on cloth, film, plastic, metal, glass and other material.
printing printing
printing through printing, ink on top of the page, and the paper is placed under the layout, print layout is just as lines through printed to layout is still the grain. Due to printing purposes at different layout with the printed surface made of surfaces, outside the limits of any of the three large format printing, porous printing purpose. The pressure was not offset press, also non-circular circle, instead of using the early invention of printing during the printing of the extension, which is "standard imprint method". Of course the pressure is reduced to a minimum.
advantages and disadvantages of porous printing:
① advantages: strong ink, color, freshness, you can apply any printed material, surface printed.
II inferior: printing speed, low production, color printing difficulties, large print is not appropriate.
porous printing application
① special printing, second bottles, three parts, plastic bottles, black metal, ⑤ sheet metal, ⑥ cloth flower, sadly, paper print, h other solid surface printing.
letterpress printing of features
due to letterpress printing layout of printing lines part and non-printing lines part has significantly of level difference, printing Shi pressure by obviously of by pressure state, so, was by pressure of edge that produced more Center heavy, so edge revealed ink more thick phenomenon, so printing finished in units area in are can see edge by pressure status, this species State called rims with (Marginal Zone). Toppan printing color thick, are three layout places it as the second printing, ink performance around 70%-80%.
lithographic printing characteristics of
offset gravure printing soft, layout components is to use water and oil don't mix with each other printing. Work in print layout in the image partly affected by the intrusion of water gel, which makes the image part of the serious damage to the line around the edge, so the line edge ink density per unit area Dodge, and rendered irregular phenomena. Of course into the lines, the more central, and edge of this kind from light to strong central performance, which is the basic characteristics of offset printing. Water gel and average-key indirect printing, color average, most light is three color concentration in large format printing, ink is about heads and expressive, in other words, the offset softer soft tone.
Intaglio printing feature of
intaglio printing is printing three colors in the layout with the strongest, CA as a result the concentration. Due to intaglio printing layout printing lines part is SAG Yu layout zhixia, in printing process in the need after Shang ink, and wipe ink, and then printing, dang printing Shi need to powerful of pressure will sag of printing lines ink pull, so in line edge that produced mechanical Shang of pull role, and constitute plush of edge, certainly also will produced rims with (Marginal Zone) phenomenon, this is identification intaglio printing most important of views. Even so, intaglio printing with an average tone continues to be an extremely strong, so prints the image part of the feeling of a dimensional thickness.
porous printing characteristics of
porous printing because it is must drop ink through the mesh holes, so the print surface performance of a plate-type. Most of the silk printing, silk cloth, others such as copper mesh or plastic mesh, can cause this phenomenon. Also result because of the paper the ink through the mesh, the printing ink is thick, thickness can be seen with the naked eye. Printing ink not shiny is one of its characteristics.
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